p-winds: Documentation

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p-winds is an open-source Python implementation of Parker wind models for planetary atmospheres, more specifically their upper atmosphere or corona. A paper describing p-winds was published in Dos Santos et al. (2022). The code is largely based on the theoretical framework of Oklopčić & Hirata (2018) and Lampón et al. (2020), which themselves based their work on the stellar wind model of Parker (1958).

In the current version, the code solves the stead-state ionization distribution of hydrogen and helium around the planet based on its physical parameters and the high-energy irradiation arriving at the planet. It also calculates the wavelength-dependent transit depths in the metastable helium triplet at 1.083 microns, and some metal lines in the UV (such as O I and C II). More species will be implemented in the future.

p-winds contains and distributes data products from the MUSCLES and Mega-MUSCLES treasury surveys. If you use the tools.generate_muscles_spectrum() or tools.standard_spectrum() functions in your study, we highly encourage you to cite France et al. (2016), Youngblood et al. (2016), Loyd et al. (2016), Wilson et al. (2021) and Behr et al. (2023).


As of version 1.4.5, p-winds does not include the MUSCLES data anymore to make the package leaner. You will need to download this data separately and set an environment variable containing the path to the data. Follow the installation guide.

If you want to use the code without installing it locally, you can always run it on the cloud (see this Google Colaboratory quickstart notebook). Otherwise, check out the Installation guide.

You can contribute to the project using GitHub.